Welcome to the Papers section of EAPJ. This section features papers produced by students and practitioners that allow a case-study style approach to the treatment of problems faced by Enterprise Architects worldwide. Have a look through the papers listed below. I’m sure you you’ll find something insightful and useful.
Towards measuring the success of Enterprise Architecture decisions
By Sandra Castro and Jürgen Jung
A significant number of initiatives for establishing Enterprise Architecture have been started in recent years, but suggestions exist that they are not meeting expectations. The reasons are manifold, but a major factor might be that the objectives of Enterprise Architecture Management are sometimes abstract or only provide a long-term perspective.
This paper presents results of a survey among Enterprise Architecture practitioners, designed to understand the immediate benefits expected from Enterprise Architecture.
Cloud Architecture for Public Health Emergencies
By Sheryl Fernandez, Nikhil Varma Gottimukkala, Steffany Alvarez Maldonado, Manisha Swaminathan and Chathura Roshan Liyana
The ability to respond to health emergencies is a crucial function of governments around the world, and 2020 gave us all a very salient lesson in that capability. In this paper from students at the University of Melbourne, we see a review of two such emergencies within Australia; the COVID-19 Pandemic, and the 2019/2020 bushfires. In analyzing reports from these events, the authors look at how an Adaptive Enterprise Architecture approach might better enable governments to respond to quickly changing circumstances such as these.
Integration of Emergency Medical Services with Health Information Systems
By Ye Xia, Yajie Zhou, Xueyan Liu, Na Zhao and Silu Xiao
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provide the first response and medical support to emergency cases. Whilst the United States of America has a reputation for having world-leading medical technology, this paper from students at The University of Melbourne shows that a lack of information integration amongst support systems can reduce the effectiveness of even the best medical systems. Applications and data that support staff working in the various stages of EMS, from first responder ambulance officers to emergency room doctors and follow up care staff, must securely and accurately share patient information for medical professionals to provide the best possible patient outcomes.
IT Services SME’s and the agile enterprise
By Aavishkar Kar, Elle Liaw, Parijat Kinshuk and Saumya Puthran
It is often thought that small to medium sized enterprises (SME’s) are better placed than large corporations to face the challenges of rapidly changing environments, customer demands, and deal with unprecedented events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Smaller size is meant to make it easier for an organisation to change and adapt quickly and efficiently, but as this paper from students at the University of Melbourne shows, they often lack the technology infrastructure or enterprise architecture models to make the required changes.
Big Data Fabric Architecture
By Micah M. Alvord, Fengyu Lu, Boyang Du and Chia-An Chen
Competition continues to intensify across all existing and emerging industries. As a result, organisations are in a constant search for opportunities to gain competitive advantage. In this paper from students at The University of Melbourne, we see an insight into how the adoption of a Big Data Fabric Architecture can help organisations better manage and utilise their available data assets, which in turn can help them improve all aspects of business operation and decision making.
An EA Approach to address health interoperability
By Huan Lu, Wei Wang, Hengze Wang, Danlin Wang and Jiachen Yuan
COVID-19 has caused health services around the world to come under unprecedented pressure and scrutiny as each country tries to deal with the pandemic. The US health system, while having access to technology and professionals the equal of any country, has been found wanting, due to its competitive rather than co-operative approach, where patient and health data is seen as a competitive advantage rather than a community asset.
In this paper by students from the University of Melbourne, the role of Enterprise Architecture in improving integration of systems and interoperability of data is examined. Various EA frameworks are examined, with particular focus on the synergies between TOGAF and SOA and their particular focus on data integration and security.
How can a SOA resolve COVID-19
By Harrison Thompson, Alex Whitehead, Yixin Lan, Fangfang Jia and Fen Qin
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented both government and business with many challenges, not least of which has been how to enable people to continue working, and keeping the economy ticking over, whilst remaining physically isolated to reduce the risk of spreading the virus. Particularly hard-hit are small to medium enterprises (SMEs) who typically don’t have a large IT infrastructure capable of maintaining normal operations remotely.
In this paper, students from the University of Melbourne examine the potential for a service-oriented architecture (SOA) to help businesses, in particular SMEs, to adapt quickly to a disaster scenario such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The case study of a fictitious legal practice highlights the issues faced in such a scenario, how a SOA can help to facilitate remote delivery of business services, and the many challenges faced in implementing such an architecture. Management and governance of the architecture are also discussed, including the application of TOGAF® and ITIL® to ensure effective implementation.
FEAF and Government Digital Transformation
By Ching-Hong Hsiung, Hsin-Ju Chen, Shu-Wen Tu & Yi-Chieh Ho
Analysis of government digital transformation projects from around the world has shown that technology based transformation alone is insufficient to deliver on the e-government promise of improved efficiency and effectiveness in delivery of public sector services to citizens.
In this paper, students from the University of Melbourne analyse the ACT Government’s Digital Health Strategy 2019-2029, showing how Enterprise Architecture can help address the shortcomings of a technology only approach to digital transformation in government. The paper examines the suitability of three frameworks: TOGAF™; ZEAF™ and FEAF; and sets out the criteria by which the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) was selected as the preferred framework. The six references models within FEAF are then examined and applied to the ACT Health strategic plan, showing how EA can help to deliver on the promise of e-government.
Influence of Leaders on Change
By Emma Warren
We’ve all heard the phrase “The only constant is change”, but how many of us in leadership positions think about what that means in terms of our own behaviours, and how we can help our staff navigate what is becoming an increasingly frenetic period of transformation?
In this paper by University of Melbourne student, Emma Warren, we see a multi-disciplinary view of how to help people increase their preparedness for change, with the expectation that increased preparation will lead to better outcomes.
EA and SOA at the US Department of Justice’s Criminal Division
By Will Pacheco
In this paper by Will Pacheco, EA student at University of Denver University College, we see an account of the problems within the technology environment of the Criminal Division of the US Department of Justice. These problems are common in many organisations, including legacy applications, disparate datasets, a lack of common definitions, and a organization hierarchy that is resistant to change.
Through the application of Enterprise Architecture practices, coupled with the introduction of a service-oriented approach, the author describes a roadmap of changes that can greatly improve the operation of the division.
Cyber Terrorism Threats & Security in Intelligent Transport Systems Architecture
By Bingyi Han, Biyu Wu, Quan Nguyen, Rodrigo Camargo and Ignacio Arancibia
In our first paper from EA students at University of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, Bingyi Han, Biyu Wu, Quan Nguyen, Rodrigo Camargo and Ignacio Arancibia bring us a view on how traditional Security Architecture approaches to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are not sufficient to address potential cyber terrorism threats.
With the increasing pervasiveness of these systems in society, and the potential for significant disruption through a cyber terrorism attack, this paper makes for interesting reading on the key focus areas of technical good practice, policies and standards, and organisation and people.
Thanks to Dr Rod Dilnutt from the School of Information Systems at the University of Melbourne for putting this paper forward for publication.
Improving America’s Voting System with EA Practices
By Ty Dockter
The US electoral system has received steadily increasing criticism for a number of reasons: ageing and unreliable voting machines, inconsistent voting methods and technologies across states, unreliable cross-checking of identification due to multiple systems with no integration, and vulnerability to cyber and other forms of attack.
In this paper, University of Denver University College student Ty Dockter presents an approach to resolving these issues using the EA discipline, and specifically the TOGAF® ADM. Ty’s approach allows for delivery of change across all states, ensuring both voters and electoral staff have a consistent, secure and reliable system to improve both voter confidence and turnout.
Enterprise Architecture for Continuing Professional Education
By Jeff Parente
The delivery of ongoing professional education is fundamental to a number of industries, whether that’s to maintain some form of professional accreditation, or just to ensure consistent understanding of how to create a safe workplace.
In this paper by Jeff Parente, graduate from University of Denver University College, we see how EA can be used to help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation that delivers these ongoing education services.
Enterprise Architecture in the Department of Veterans Affairs
By Carolina VanBuskirk
The US federal government invests significant funds in the Department of Veterans Affairs every year. It provides essential services to veteran’s and their families. In this paper, University of Denver University College student Carolina VanBuskirk brings us an insightful view on how to use the EA discipline to bring about effective change in the VA, addressing core concerns observed within the department.
Enterprise Architecture and Climate Change
By Steven Stackle
Steven Stackle, University of Denver University College student, brings us a fascinating paper on how the US might improve the capture and use of climate-related data, and develop a coordinated action plan that can help to avert some of the potential dangers of this global, and growing, concern.
Proposed Enterprise Architecture for the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services
By Sara Sobczyk
In this paper by University of Denver University College student, Sara Sobczyk presents a compelling set of remedies to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery by the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Using the principles of the TOGAF framework, Sara adopts recommendations by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to ensure the cost of delivering these services becomes less burdensome on government and citizens alike.
Forest Fire Reduction using Enterprise Architecture
By Brian Dobony
In this interesting and topical look at the topic of fighting wildfires, University of Denver, University College student Brian Dobony presents a view on how we can use the principles and methods of Enterprise Architecture to help reduce the number and severity of these natural disasters.
The Reconstruction of Sears Holdings Utilizing Enterprise Architecture
By Eric Zorn
University of Denver, University College student Eric Zorn writes about Sears Holdings, and its struggles to remain viable in the current world of constant technological reinvention in the retail sector. Eric shows how, by using an EA-based approach, aligned with other established approaches such as ITIL and Agile, and based on the use of Big Data technologies, Sears can rebuild itself and deliver on its promise to customers.
Using EA in an Engineering Services Company to Improve Operations
By Erin Culp
In this latest student paper by GIS Analyst and Environmental Scientist, Erin Culp, we take a look at a large Engineering Services multi-national, which has undergone considerable change. Through the application of Enterprise Architecture, Erin looks at ways the organization can improve its operations in areas such as business process consolidation, data security and knowledge management. These are areas of concern for many organizations, so it makes for a broadly applicable case study.
Using EA to Improve Learning in a Healthcare Organization
By Nancy Randall
It’s a well understood fact that the cost of healthcare delivery has become a significant problem in many developed countries.There are numerous issues causing this, some systemic, some more localised. In this new paper from Nancy Randall, we take a close look at one specific area of unnecessary cost within a large healthcare organisation; eLearning.
The topic of eLearning is one that many organisations have to deal with, and the larger the organization, the more problematic it seems to become. This can manifest in terms of excessive effort, proliferation of solutions and their associated licensing costs, and inconsistency in outcomes. When some of this includes legislative obligations, or care outcomes, the stakes become even higher.
Through this particular lens, the author suggests the use of Enterprise Architecture techniques to understand the problem, evaluate solutions, and make positive change. Use the button below to read more.
Enterprise Architecture in Emergency Services
By Brenden Hyde
There are some services we rely on to “just work” when we need them. There are none more important to those in an emergency situation, than the 911 service. That said, we rarely stop to think about what makes this type of service function.
In this fascinating look at one such service provider, author Brenden Hyde applies the TOGAF framework to determine how the organization can be improved, covering all aspects of its operation from process and structure, to systems and infrastructure.
Can Enterprise Architecture Save the Dinosaurs
By Allison Adolpshon
In this highly original and creative paper, Allison Adolphson uses the lens of Enterprise Architecture to look at the problems that beset the original Jurassic Park facility in the seminal 1993 movie of the same name. In understanding the circumstances that unfolded throughout that movie, Allison identifies key areas of change needed to ensure that future operations don’t fall prey (pun intended) to the same issues. This not only identifies areas of technological challenge, but business operations, strategic alignment and more. A thoroughly enjoyable and unique take on the application of EA practices.
Application Improvements through EA
In this paper, the author takes an in-depth look at issues that exist in their company, particularly in the space of business efficiency as a consequence of a poor-fit application environment. Through the application of an Enterprise Architecture based approach, a holistic view is formed of how incremental improvements need to be made that can result in better outcomes for the organization, its employees and business partners, and its customers.
Enterprise Architecture at the County Library
By Mark Kuhn
In this brief but informative paper from Mark Kuhn, we get an insight into some of the current challenges faced by a stalwart of American civilisation; the County Library.
In this paper, Mark uses the concepts from Enterprise Architecture to propose some solutions that could help rebuild the relevance of these institutions, and begin an upward cycle of investment, designed to ensure they continue to serve local communities everywhere.
Architecture for the US Army Human Resources Enterprise
By Seth Dorris
The Department of the Army (DA) is an agency of the Federal Government that has an established enterprise architecture program per the Clinger-Cohen act of 1996. However, the DA does not recognize its own business units as enterprises which require their own EA to completely integrate IT into the decision-making process and maximize the value of IT investments.
This paper examines one such business unit, human resources, and describes how an EA program can be developed that will nest neatly underneath the existing architecture for the DA and help optimize integrations, decrease IT risks, lower IT costs, and simplify the IT landscape.
EA-based review of US Department of Housing and Urban Development
By Dimitar Georgiev
In March 2012, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued testimony about the increasing imbalance between the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) growing mission and its IT environment capabilities. GAO identified a lack of sound management controls such as IT strategic planning, investment management, enterprise architecture and human capital planning. Although between 2009 and 2012, HUD has made noticeable progress, some problems remain poorly addressed.
This paper takes a step further, looking at the GAO’s findings in more depth, in an attempt to extract and analyze more specific issues. This includes stove-piped, nonintegrated IT systems, a technology stack polluted with antiquated technologies, lack of architecture governance and controls, and lack of adequate metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs).
EA-based Assessment of Organizational Readiness for US 2020 Census
By Brianna Titone
The US Census is one of the most important facets of the US democracy which is mandated by the Constitution. The Census Bureau has been aggressively moving into the 21st century by implementing many new EA systems that will eventually save the Bureau billions for the decennial census. Budgetary constraints, insufficient training, and lack of leadership are hindering EA completion. At the current rate, EA systems will not be adequately tested before doing the decennial census. Without changes in management, training and budget investment, there is an uncertain future of the success of the 2020 Census.
Proposed EA Solutions for Industry 4.0 Manufacturing
By Cole Rogers
The vision of Industry 4.0 organizations involves complex highly integrated IT systems. This vision can strongly benefit from the fundamental principles of Enterprise Architecture that enable organizations to ‘achieve the right balance between IT efﬁciency and business innovation’ (The Open Group 2011). One aspect of the Industry 4.0 vision is the potential increased enterprise-wide usage of process simulations and virtual prototypes. These simulation-based information assets have traditionally been siloed within product development departments. Through the application of EA principles Industry 4.0 organizations can derive increased value from these assets by freeing them from their silos and increasing the potential for their application across the enterprise.
Leveraging Enterprise Architecture for Startup Organizations
By Andrea Pudlo
Enterprise Architecture (EA) can greatly benefit all kinds of organizations. However, companies that are in the developmental stage, like Airborne Wireless Networks (AWN), are in a unique position to reap even greater rewards from applying an EA framework to its initiatives. Ross, Weill, and Robertson (2006, 9) define EA as the “organizing logic” behind tying a company’s information technology (IT) infrastructure to its business processes with the ultimate goal of more effectively achieving current and future business objectives. Although a startup organization will not have accumulated an assortment of legacy systems and processes that make integration and standardization within a business difficult at best, this type of company can benefit by incorporating EA from day one to gain more business advantages.
Evolving Productivity with IT Asset Lifecycle Management and Configuration Management
By Brandon Rose
As the business grows, the tasks that were once tolerable, soon become burdensome. This is especially apparent in a business where silos prevent the true end-to-end view of work flows and processes. Asset and configuration management are two pain points that multiple business units participate in, but have constant hurdles due to its age, lack of automation and missing interactions with other vital applications.