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Welcome to the Papers section of EAPJ. This section features papers produced by students and practitioners that allow a case-study style approach to the treatment of problems faced by Enterprise Architects worldwide. Have a look through the papers listed below. I’m sure you you’ll find something insightful and useful.

Non-Technical Enterprise Architecture In Healthcare

By Wei Sheng Lim, Philip Loya, Vaibhav Sinha, Laura Vander Slott, Jie Yu and Rod Dilnutt

There are many papers written on Enterprise Architecture, but most focus, at least in part, on technical aspects of EA and its implementation. This paper, from students at the University of Melbourne, instead focuses on the non-technical aspects of EA, with particular focus on the healthcare sector which itself presents unique challenges due to competing goals of clinical outcomes on the one hand, and business outcomes on the other. Healthcare is presented as a good example of “culture eats strategy for lunch”.

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Application Of EA Artifacts As An Instrument For KMS

By Jiayi Gao, Shuqi Guo, Xinyu Luo, Wenqian Shen, Boyang Zhao and Rod Dilnutt

Reusability is a common pattern in IT to increase efficiency, however there is limited research exploring the reuse of enterprise architecture artifacts in a broad sense. This article by students from the University of Melbourne examines 13 common EA artifacts and their reuse specifically in implementing Knowledge Management systems, using McCampbell et al’s Knowledge Management building blocks.

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Leveraging EA For Big Data Analytics In Retail

By Ruchika Ambekar, Jenna Lynn Ong, Thu Thao Nguyen, Palak Sharma, Rowena Rae Tanafranca and Rod Dilnutt

Big Data for the purposes of analytics has become somewhat mainstream in businesses over the past decade or so, particularly in the “big end of town”. Implementing this set of technologies and responsibilities, however, can be enormously challenging. One industry segment that has adopted Big Data Analytics strongly is Retail, which is the focus of this paper from students at the University of Melbourne. Through an analysis of the TOGAF and Zachman frameworks, the authors have identified how Enterprise Architecture can be used to ensure successful outcomes when adopting Big Data Analytics for competitive advantage.

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Using IoT-Blockchain To Improve Food Supply Chain Resiliency

By Anuvind Vijayakumar, Arjun Paari Balasenthil, Dmitry Stolbov, Namratha Pujer, Oscar Bjornestad and Rod Dilnutt

Global supply chains are large, complex, and as discovered during the pandemic, often fragile. Innovative technology solutions promise to improve their operation, which is the focus of this paper from students at University of Melbourne. The authors of the paper show how the use of a TOGAF-based approach, an Agile delivery methodology, and an IoT and Blockchain based technological infrastructure, can help with improvements to the Food Supply Chain across the areas of visibility, flexibility, control and collaboration.

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Applying EA Frameworks To Enhance Cybersecurity

By Jiawei Tong, Jiayuan Zhang, Xinlan Chen, Qianqing Lu, Qiaoan Zhang and Rod Dilnutt

The association between Enterprise Architecture and Cyber Security is an underappreciated relationship, but one that can deliver tremendous value to organisations. In this paper, students from the University of Melbourne show how EA frameworks such as Zachman and TOGAF can be used to establish a better understanding of cyber threats, and what improvements can be made within an organisation to mitigate them.

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EA Supporting AI In Digital Transformation Of Manufacturing

By Rod Dilnutt, Dan Xiao, Guanting Fang, Jin Yang, Ruijie Ran and Linda Wu

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is rapidly becoming a key tool in the journey to more efficient processes in many fields. However, research shows that AI by itself may fail to deliver expected returns. In this paper, students from the University of Melbourne examine the use of AI in the manufacturing industry, the rise of smart manufacturing, and the complexities that arise when using AI as part of a digital transformation. The paper shows why EA is key to including AI in digital transformation.

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Improving Security And Privacy Of Smart Home Systems

By Zhangyi Wu, Zitian Li, Xiaojian Liu, Jingman Zhuang, Junnan Ma and Rod Dilnutt

As cloud-based smart home systems become more common, studies have shown they are attracting unwanted attention from hackers and the criminal community. This paper, from students at the University of Melbourne, examines the key areas of risk with cloud-based home security and the technologies, such as blockchain and physical unclonable functions, that are helping to keep these systems safe and secure.

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Leveraging EA To Address Key Challenges Of Web 3.0

By Alejandra Abril Pareja, Joan Pardillo, Monish Manikanda, Pooja Goel and Priyanka Ganapathy Valli

Web 3.0 is the still emerging 3rd evolution of the World Wide Web and with it comes a strong emphasis on decentralised applications, technologies to ensure the security of communications between these applications, such as Blockchain, and the increased use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. This shift in architecture and technologies brings with it unique challenges for organisations. In this paper from students at the University of Melbourne, enterprise architecture frameworks (EAFs) such as TOGAF and Zachman Framework are examined for their suitability and effectiveness at guiding organisations towards Web 3.0 and all that it entails.

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How TOGAF Can Address Government Interoperability

By Yuxun Ji, Pai Zhang, Changsheng Qiu, Peiyao Li and Dexian Wang

Governments worldwide have found one of the biggest issues in digital transformation is the interoperability, or lack thereof, between systems across various departments. In this paper, students from the University of Melbourne compare four popular EA frameworks in an attempt to determine the best framework for dealing with interoperability issues, particularly those found between government departments. The paper then uses the digital transformation program of the Canadian government as an example of how TOGAF® is the best framework to address these issues.

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The Case For Enterprise Architecture In Local Government

By Brigitte Augustes, Kameron Chan, Henry Paulet and Christine Beaton

This paper from students at the University of Melbourne poses the question How can enterprise architecture support digital transformation in local government? The paper reviews the literature on the benefits of EA in digital transformations and explains how EA presents a well established approach to achieving digital capabilities and innovation in local government organisations. The paper acknowledges there is limited research on the use of EA for digital transformation in local government specifically and suggests areas where this limited research could be increased.

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EA Frameworks And AI Challenges In Healthcare

By Antra Arshad, Reema A. Alduaiji, Amrit Kurup, Maryam Alshehri and Shruti Sunil

The use of Artificial Intelligence in healthcare settings has been the subject of much discussion, investment and evolution. It has the potential to be transformative in everything from diagnosis to precision medicine. In this new paper from students at the University of Melbourne, we see a review of existing literature on the challenges faced in the adoption of AI in healthcare, and how differing architectural approaches can help to address these concerns, and help realise the potential of this world-changing technology.

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Blockchain Integrated EA For Vaccine Distribution

By Agus Putra Wicaksana, Kittiboon Taopittayathorn, Kongmanas Yavaprabhas and Shalini

The Covid-19 Vaccination Program, rolled out over the course of 2021 across all of Australia’s states and territories, has been a tremendous technical and logistical challenge. Whilst some criticisms exist, it has been an impressive feat of coordination. In this paper from students at the University of Melbourne, we see a well thought through consideration of how Blockchain technologies might be used to support and improve the delivery of this vaccination program, aligned to the adoption of the Federal Government’s Australian Government Architecture (AGA) Framework.

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The Gill Framework, Cloud Adoption & Banking Transformation

By Yunjia Ji, Jinru Wang, Letian Shen, Xuefeier Dong and Wenyue Gu

Cloud adoption is challenging in many business environments, particularly those that are highly regulated. That said, the ability to identify and adopt suitable cloud services can be an important part of innovation and service improvement. In this latest paper from students at the University of Melbourne, the authors compare EA frameworks to identify those suitable for helping traditional banks migrate services and solutions to the cloud. Through the use of a case study, the paper shows how the use of the Gill Framework for Adaptive EA can empower a traditional bank to identify and implement cloud services that could improve customer and organisational outcomes.

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How does TOGAF realise Queensland’s Digital Health transformation

By Qiantong Liu, Ziling Liu, Yiren Wang, Rui Zhong and Yuwen Zhang

The Queensland (Australia) Digital Health Strategic Vision 2026 is a 10-year plan published by the Queensland Department of Health aimed at establishing a comprehensive consumer-centric digital platform for the provision of health information and services, but lacked an enterprise architecture framework. In this article, students from the University of Melbourne compare and contrast four major EA frameworks and their suitability to help Queensland Health with its strategic plan.

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Towards measuring the success of Enterprise Architecture decisions

By Sandra Castro and Jürgen Jung

A significant number of initiatives for establishing Enterprise Architecture have been started in recent years, but suggestions exist that they are not meeting expectations. The reasons are manifold, but a major factor might be that the objectives of Enterprise Architecture Management are sometimes abstract or only provide a long-term perspective.

This paper presents results of a survey among Enterprise Architecture practitioners, designed to understand the immediate benefits expected from Enterprise Architecture.

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Cloud Architecture for Public Health Emergencies

By Sheryl Fernandez, Nikhil Varma Gottimukkala, Steffany Alvarez Maldonado, Manisha Swaminathan and Chathura Roshan Liyana

The ability to respond to health emergencies is a crucial function of governments around the world, and 2020 gave us all a very salient lesson in that capability. In this paper from students at the University of Melbourne, we see a review of two such emergencies within Australia; the COVID-19 Pandemic, and the 2019/2020 bushfires. In analyzing reports from these events, the authors look at how an Adaptive Enterprise Architecture approach might better enable governments to respond to quickly changing circumstances such as these.

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Integration of Emergency Medical Services with Health Information Systems

By Ye Xia, Yajie Zhou, Xueyan Liu, Na Zhao and Silu Xiao

Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provide the first response and medical support to emergency cases.  Whilst the United States of America has a reputation for having world-leading medical technology, this paper from students at The University of Melbourne shows that a lack of information integration amongst support systems can reduce the effectiveness of even the best medical systems.  Applications and data that support staff working in the various stages of EMS, from first responder ambulance officers to emergency room doctors and follow up care staff, must securely and accurately share patient information for medical professionals to provide the best possible patient outcomes.

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IT Services SME’s and the agile enterprise

By Aavishkar Kar, Elle Liaw, Parijat Kinshuk and Saumya Puthran

It is often thought that small to medium sized enterprises (SME’s) are better placed than large corporations to face the challenges of rapidly changing environments, customer demands, and deal with unprecedented events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.  Smaller size is meant to make it easier for an organisation to change and adapt quickly and efficiently, but as this paper from students at the University of Melbourne shows, they often lack the technology infrastructure or enterprise architecture models to make the required changes.

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Big Data Fabric Architecture

By Micah M. Alvord, Fengyu Lu, Boyang Du and Chia-An Chen

Competition continues to intensify across all existing and emerging industries. As a result, organisations are in a constant search for opportunities to gain competitive advantage. In this paper from students at The University of Melbourne, we see an insight into how the adoption of a Big Data Fabric Architecture can help organisations better manage and utilise their available data assets, which in turn can help them improve all aspects of business operation and decision making.

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An EA Approach to address health interoperability

By Huan Lu, Wei Wang, Hengze Wang, Danlin Wang and Jiachen Yuan

COVID-19 has caused health services around the world to come under unprecedented pressure and scrutiny as each country tries to deal with the pandemic.  The US health system, while having access to technology and professionals the equal of any country, has been found wanting, due to its competitive rather than co-operative approach, where patient and health data is seen as a competitive advantage rather than a community asset.

In this paper by students from the University of Melbourne, the role of Enterprise Architecture in improving integration of systems and interoperability of data is examined.  Various EA frameworks are examined, with particular focus on the synergies between TOGAF and SOA and their particular focus on data integration and security.

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How can a SOA resolve COVID-19

By Harrison Thompson, Alex Whitehead, Yixin Lan, Fangfang Jia and Fen Qin

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented both government and business with many challenges, not least of which has been how to enable people to continue working, and keeping the economy ticking over, whilst remaining physically isolated to reduce the risk of spreading the virus.  Particularly hard-hit are small to medium enterprises (SMEs) who typically don’t have a large IT infrastructure capable of maintaining normal operations remotely.

In this paper, students from the University of Melbourne examine the potential for a service-oriented architecture (SOA) to help businesses, in particular SMEs, to adapt quickly to a disaster scenario such as the COVID-19 pandemic.  The case study of a fictitious legal practice highlights the issues faced in such a scenario, how a SOA can help to facilitate remote delivery of business services, and the many challenges faced in implementing such an architecture.  Management and governance of the architecture are also discussed, including the application of TOGAF® and ITIL® to ensure effective implementation.

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FEAF and Government Digital Transformation

By Ching-Hong Hsiung, Hsin-Ju Chen, Shu-Wen Tu & Yi-Chieh Ho

Analysis of government digital transformation projects from around the world has shown that technology based transformation alone is insufficient to deliver on the e-government promise of improved efficiency and effectiveness in delivery of public sector services to citizens.

In this paper, students from the University of Melbourne analyse the ACT Government’s Digital Health Strategy 2019-2029, showing how Enterprise Architecture can help address the shortcomings of a technology only approach to digital transformation in government.  The paper examines the suitability of three frameworks: TOGAF™; ZEAF™ and FEAF; and sets out the criteria by which the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) was selected as the preferred framework.  The six references models within FEAF are then examined and applied to the ACT Health strategic plan, showing how EA can help to deliver on the promise of e-government.

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Influence of Leaders on Change

By Emma Warren

We’ve all heard the phrase “The only constant is change”, but how many of us in leadership positions think about what that means in terms of our own behaviours, and how we can help our staff navigate what is becoming an increasingly frenetic period of transformation?

In this paper by University of Melbourne student, Emma Warren, we see a multi-disciplinary view of how to help people increase their preparedness for change, with the expectation that increased preparation will lead to better outcomes.

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EA and SOA at the US Department of Justice’s Criminal Division

By Will Pacheco

In this paper by Will Pacheco, EA student at University of Denver University College, we see an account of the problems within the technology environment of the Criminal Division of the US Department of Justice. These problems are common in many organisations, including legacy applications, disparate datasets, a lack of common definitions, and a organization hierarchy that is resistant to change.

Through the application of Enterprise Architecture practices, coupled with the introduction of a service-oriented approach, the author describes a roadmap of changes that can greatly improve the operation of the division.

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Cyber Terrorism Threats & Security in Intelligent Transport Systems Architecture

By Bingyi Han, Biyu Wu, Quan Nguyen, Rodrigo Camargo and Ignacio Arancibia

In our first paper from EA students at University of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia, Bingyi Han, Biyu Wu, Quan Nguyen, Rodrigo Camargo and Ignacio Arancibia bring us a view on how traditional Security Architecture approaches to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are not sufficient to address potential cyber terrorism threats.

With the increasing pervasiveness of these systems in society, and the potential for significant disruption through a cyber terrorism attack, this paper makes for interesting reading on the key focus areas of technical good practice, policies and standards, and organisation and people.

Thanks to Dr Rod Dilnutt from the School of Information Systems at the University of Melbourne for putting this paper forward for publication.

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Improving America’s Voting System with EA Practices

By Ty Dockter

The US electoral system has received steadily increasing criticism for a number of reasons:  ageing and unreliable voting machines, inconsistent voting methods and technologies across states, unreliable cross-checking of identification due to multiple systems with no integration, and vulnerability to cyber and other forms of attack.

In this paper, University of Denver University College student Ty Dockter presents an approach to resolving these issues using the EA discipline, and specifically the TOGAF® ADM.  Ty’s approach allows for delivery of change across all states, ensuring both voters and electoral staff have a consistent, secure and reliable system to improve both voter confidence and turnout.

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Enterprise Architecture for Continuing Professional Education

By Jeff Parente

The delivery of ongoing professional education is fundamental to a number of industries, whether that’s to maintain some form of professional accreditation, or just to ensure consistent understanding of how to create a safe workplace.

In this paper by Jeff Parente, graduate from University of Denver University College, we see how EA can be used to help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation that delivers these ongoing education services.

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Enterprise Architecture in the Department of Veterans Affairs

By Carolina VanBuskirk

The US federal government invests significant funds in the Department of Veterans Affairs every year. It provides essential services to veteran’s and their families. In this paper, University of Denver University College student Carolina VanBuskirk brings us an insightful view on how to use the EA discipline to bring about effective change in the VA, addressing core concerns observed within the department.

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Enterprise Architecture and Climate Change

By Steven Stackle

Steven Stackle, University of Denver University College student, brings us a fascinating paper on how the US might improve the capture and use of climate-related data, and develop a coordinated action plan that can help to avert some of the potential dangers of this global, and growing, concern.

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Proposed Enterprise Architecture for the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services

By Sara Sobczyk

In this paper by University of Denver University College student, Sara Sobczyk presents a compelling set of remedies to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery by the Center of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Using the principles of the TOGAF framework, Sara adopts recommendations by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to ensure the cost of delivering these services becomes less burdensome on government and citizens alike.

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Forest Fire Reduction using Enterprise Architecture

By Brian Dobony

In this interesting and topical look at the topic of fighting wildfires, University of Denver, University College student Brian Dobony presents a view on how we can use the principles and methods of Enterprise Architecture to help reduce the number and severity of these natural disasters.

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The Reconstruction of Sears Holdings Utilizing Enterprise Architecture

By Eric Zorn

University of Denver, University College student Eric Zorn writes about Sears Holdings, and its struggles to remain viable in the current world of constant technological reinvention in the retail sector. Eric shows how, by using an EA-based approach, aligned with other established approaches such as ITIL and Agile, and based on the use of Big Data technologies, Sears can rebuild itself and deliver on its promise to customers.

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Using EA in an Engineering Services Company to Improve Operations

By Erin Culp

In this latest student paper by GIS Analyst and Environmental Scientist, Erin Culp, we take a look at a large Engineering Services multi-national, which has undergone considerable change. Through the application of Enterprise Architecture, Erin looks at ways the organization can improve its operations in areas such as business process consolidation, data security and knowledge management. These are areas of concern for many organizations, so it makes for a broadly applicable case study.

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Using EA to Improve Learning in a Healthcare Organization

By Nancy Randall

It’s a well understood fact that the cost of healthcare delivery has become a significant problem in many developed countries.There are numerous issues causing this, some systemic, some more localised. In this new paper from Nancy Randall, we take a close look at one specific area of unnecessary cost within a large healthcare organisation; eLearning.

The topic of eLearning is one that many organisations have to deal with, and the larger the organization, the more problematic it seems to become. This can manifest in terms of excessive effort, proliferation of solutions and their associated licensing costs, and inconsistency in outcomes. When some of this includes legislative obligations, or care outcomes, the stakes become even higher.

Through this particular lens, the author suggests the use of Enterprise Architecture techniques to understand the problem, evaluate solutions, and make positive change. Use the button below to read more.

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Enterprise Architecture in Emergency Services

By Brenden Hyde

There are some services we rely on to “just work” when we need them. There are none more important to those in an emergency situation, than the 911 service. That said, we rarely stop to think about what makes this type of service function.

In this fascinating look at one such service provider, author Brenden Hyde applies the TOGAF framework to determine how the organization can be improved, covering all aspects of its operation from process and structure, to systems and infrastructure.

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Can Enterprise Architecture Save the Dinosaurs

By Allison Adolpshon

In this highly original and creative paper, Allison Adolphson uses the lens of Enterprise Architecture to look at the problems that beset the original Jurassic Park facility in the seminal 1993 movie of the same name. In understanding the circumstances that unfolded throughout that movie, Allison identifies key areas of change needed to ensure that future operations don’t fall prey (pun intended) to the same issues. This not only identifies areas of technological challenge, but business operations, strategic alignment and more. A thoroughly enjoyable and unique take on the application of EA practices.

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Application Improvements through EA

In this paper, the author takes an in-depth look at issues that exist in their company, particularly in the space of business efficiency as a consequence of a poor-fit application environment. Through the application of an Enterprise Architecture based approach, a holistic view is formed of how incremental improvements need to be made that can result in better outcomes for the organization, its employees and business partners, and its customers.

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Enterprise Architecture at the County Library

By Mark Kuhn

In this brief but informative paper from Mark Kuhn, we get an insight into some of the current challenges faced by a stalwart of American civilisation; the County Library.

In this paper, Mark uses the concepts from Enterprise Architecture to propose some solutions that could help rebuild the relevance of these institutions, and begin an upward cycle of investment, designed to ensure they continue to serve local communities everywhere.

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Architecture for the US Army Human Resources Enterprise

By Seth Dorris

The Department of the Army (DA) is an agency of the Federal Government that has an established enterprise architecture program per the Clinger-Cohen act of 1996. However, the DA does not recognize its own business units as enterprises which require their own EA to completely integrate IT into the decision-making process and maximize the value of IT investments.

This paper examines one such business unit, human resources, and describes how an EA program can be developed that will nest neatly underneath the existing architecture for the DA and help optimize integrations, decrease IT risks, lower IT costs, and simplify the IT landscape.

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EA-based review of US Department of Housing and Urban Development

By Dimitar Georgiev

In March 2012, the US Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued testimony about the increasing imbalance between the US Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) growing mission and its IT environment capabilities. GAO identified a lack of sound management controls such as IT strategic planning, investment management, enterprise architecture and human capital planning. Although between 2009 and 2012, HUD has made noticeable progress, some problems remain poorly addressed.

This paper takes a step further, looking at the GAO’s findings in more depth, in an attempt to extract and analyze more specific issues. This includes stove-piped, nonintegrated IT systems, a technology stack polluted with antiquated technologies, lack of architecture governance and controls, and lack of adequate metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs).

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EA-based Assessment of Organizational Readiness for US 2020 Census

By Brianna Titone

The US Census is one of the most important facets of the US democracy which is mandated by the Constitution. The Census Bureau has been aggressively moving into the 21st century by implementing many new EA systems that will eventually save the Bureau billions for the decennial census. Budgetary constraints, insufficient training, and lack of leadership are hindering EA completion. At the current rate, EA systems will not be adequately tested before doing the decennial census. Without changes in management, training and budget investment, there is an uncertain future of the success of the 2020 Census.

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Proposed EA Solutions for Industry 4.0 Manufacturing

By Cole Rogers

The vision of Industry 4.0 organizations involves complex highly integrated IT systems. This vision can strongly benefit from the fundamental principles of Enterprise Architecture that enable organizations to ‘achieve the right balance between IT efficiency and business innovation’ (The Open Group 2011). One aspect of the Industry 4.0 vision is the potential increased enterprise-wide usage of process simulations and virtual prototypes. These simulation-based information assets have traditionally been siloed within product development departments. Through the application of EA principles Industry 4.0 organizations can derive increased value from these assets by freeing them from their silos and increasing the potential for their application across the enterprise.

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Leveraging Enterprise Architecture for Startup Organizations

By Andrea Pudlo

Enterprise Architecture (EA) can greatly benefit all kinds of organizations. However, companies that are in the developmental stage, like Airborne Wireless Networks (AWN), are in a unique position to reap even greater rewards from applying an EA framework to its initiatives. Ross, Weill, and Robertson (2006, 9) define EA as the “organizing logic” behind tying a company’s information technology (IT) infrastructure to its business processes with the ultimate goal of more effectively achieving current and future business objectives. Although a startup organization will not have accumulated an assortment of legacy systems and processes that make integration and standardization within a business difficult at best, this type of company can benefit by incorporating EA from day one to gain more business advantages.

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Evolving Productivity with IT Asset Lifecycle Management and Configuration Management

By Brandon Rose

As the business grows, the tasks that were once tolerable, soon become burdensome. This is especially apparent in a business where silos prevent the true end-to-end view of work flows and processes. Asset and configuration management are two pain points that multiple business units participate in, but have constant hurdles due to its age, lack of automation and missing interactions with other vital applications.

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